Sunday, 22 April 2012


TOP 10 SONGS OF THE WORLD FOR ALL TIMES
1.Bohemian Rhapsody – Queen
2. Stairway to Heaven - Led Zeppelin
3. Earth Song - Michael Jackson
4. You Raise Me Up - Josh Groban
5. Smells Like Teen Spirit – Nirvana
6. One – Metallica
7. Imagine - John Lennon
8. Sweet Child O' Mine - Guns N' Roses
9. Crane's Crying – Vitas
10. The Winner Takes It All - ABBA

Saturday, 21 April 2012

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A General Knowledge Test




1.Which of the following is not associated with the UNO?
A.            ILO         B.            WHO
C.            ASEAN  D.            All of the above
 Answer: Option C
2. The chairmanship/presidency of the UN Security Council rotates among the Council Members
A.            every 6 months
B.            every 3 months
C.            every year
D.            every month
 Answer: Option D
3.Which of the following is not a chief organ of the United Nations Organisations?
A.            International Labour Organisation
B.            Security Council
C.            International Court of Justice
D.            General Assembly
 Answer: Option A
4. Permanent Secretariat to coordinate the implementation of SAARC programme is located at
A.            Dhaka
B.            New Delhi
C.            Colombo
D.            Kathmandu
 Answer: Option D
5. The Indian delegation to the first World Conference on Human Rights was led by
A.            Dr. Manmohan Singh
B.            Farooq Abdullah
C.            Dinesh singh
D.            Alam Khan
 Answer: Option A
6.The year 1995 is the Golden Jubilee year of which of the following international organisations?
A.            UNO
B.            NAM
C.            GATT (now WTO)
D.            ASEAN
 Answer: Option A
7.The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) is located at which of the following places?
A.            Geneva                B.            Rome
C.            Paris      D.            Vienna
 Answer: Option A
8.Amnesty International is an organisation associated with which of the following fields?
A.            Protection of Cruelty to animals
B.            Environment protection
C.            Protection of human rights
D.            Protection of historic monuments
Answer: Option C
9.The Halifax summit was that of
A.            G-7 countries
B.            Leaders of the NAM
C.            countries in favour of a common currency for Europe
D.            Palestinian and Israeli leaders
 Answer: Option A
10.The office of the UN General Assembly is in
A.            Vienna
B.            New York
C.            Paris
D.            Zurich
Answer: Option B
11.Which is principal organ of the United Nations that as virtually accomplished its object?
A.            The Security Council
B.            The General Assembly
C.            The International Court of Justice
D.            The Trusteeship Council
Answer: Option D
 12.The headquarters of the UNESCO is at
A.            Rome
B.            Geneva
C.            New York
D.            Paris
Answer: Option D
13.Which UN body deals with population problem?
A.            UNFPA B.            UNDP
C.            UNICEF D.            UNESCO
Answer: Option A
14.Besides UK, USA, Germany and Japan the G-7 countries includes
A.            Canada, France and Russia
B.            Canada, Italy and Netherlands
C.            France, Netherlands and Russia
D.            Canada, France and Italy
Answer: Option D
15.The headquarters of World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) is located in
A.            Paris
B.            Madrid
C.            New York
D.            Geneva
Answer: Option D
16.SAARC is observing a decade(1991-2000) of which of the following?
A.            Girl child
B.            Literacy
C.            Health services to rural poor
D.            Shelter for all
Answer: Option A
17.The headquarters of Food and Agriculture Organisation is in
A.            Washington        B.            Paris
C.            Madrid D.            Rome
Answer: Option D
18.Which of the following countries is not a member of Group 15 developing countries?
A.            Mexico B.            Malaysia
C.            Brazil     D.            Bolivia
Answer: Option D
19.Which one of the following is not related to disarmament?
A.            SALT      B.            NPT
C.            CTBT      D.            NATO
Answer: Option D
20.Which of the following describe correctly the Group of Seven Countries (G-7)?
A.            They are developing countries
B.            They are industrialised countries
C.            They are holding Atomic Bomb technology
D.            They are countries who can launch their own satellites
Answer: Option B
21.Which of the following is used as the logo of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)?
A.            Deer      B.            Panda
C.            Camel   D.            Lion
Answer: Option B
22.Which of the following countries is not a member of the G-8 group?
A.            Germany             B.            France
C.            Italy       D.            Spain
Answer: Option D
23.Pakistan which rejoined the Commonwealth, had pulled itself out of it in the year
A.            1978       B.            1975
C.            1972       D.            1982
Answer: Option C
24.Which of the following countries is not a member of SAARC?
A.            Nepal    B.            Bangladesh
C.            Afghanistan        D.            Myanmar
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option D
25.The main aim of SAARC is
A.            Regional Cooperation
B.            Internal affairs
C.            Non-alignity
D.            Peaceful Coexistence
Answer: Option A
26.The International Human Rights Convention adopted by the United Nations in 1990 relates to
A.            disabled
B.            stateless persons
C.            migrant workers
D.            children
Answer: Option D
27.Who was the first Indian to be President of UN General Assembly?
A.            Mrs. Vijay Lakshmi Pandit
B.            Ramesh Bhandari
C.            Natwar Singh
D.            Krishna Menon
Answer: Option A
28.How many former republics of USSR have become members of the Commonwealth of Independent States?
A.            11           B.            10
C.            12           D.            9
Answer: Option A
29.The five permanent members of UN security council are
A.            Japan, West Germany, USSR, UK and USA
B.            Canada, China, France, USSR and USA
C.            Germany, China, USSR, UK and USA
D.            China, France, USSR, UK and USA
Answer: Option D
30.When was the South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC) formed?
A.            1985       B.            1982
C.            1986       D.            1987
Answer: Option A
31.Which of the following is the headquarters of World Trade Organisation (WTO)?
A.            New York
B.            Geneva
C.            Madrid
D.            Paris
Answer: Option B
32.The international township built near Pondicherry in India in coloration with UNESCO is called
A.            Elbaville                B.            Auroville
C.            Gayaville              D.            Broadway
Answer: Option B
33.Which of the following is a cultural organisation?
A.            UNESCO               B.            ILO
C.            WHO     D.            FAO
Answer: Option A
34.The non-permanent members of the Security Council of the UN elected by the General Assembly for two years term at present include (2-year term which begins on the January 1, 2011)
A.            Japan, India, Hungary, Venezuela
B.            Morocco, Cape, Verde, Belgium, Russia
C.            Zimbabwe, Venezuela, India, France
D.            Colombia, Germany, India, Portugal, South Africa
Answer: Option D
35.Which of the following countries is not a member of G-15?
A.            Jamaica                B.            Indonesia
C.            Columbia             D.            Peru
Answer: Option C
36.The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific (ESCAP) is located at
A.            Manila
B.            Singapore
C.            Kuala lumpur
D.            Bangkok
Answer: Option D
37.Vietnam joined the U.N.O in the year
A.            1977       B.            1970
C.            1976       D.            1974
Answer: Option A
38.The International Court of Justice is located at
A.            Geneva                B.            Hague
C.            Amsterdam        D.            Vienna
Answer: Option B
39.Which of the following international organisations has started the scheme 'Partnership for Peace' for a group of nations?
A.            Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
B.            Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific (ESCAP)
C.            North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)
D.            Organisations of African Unity (OAU)
 Answer: Option C
40.Which of the following pairs of country and the purpose for which U.N. Peace Keeping Force is maintained is correctly is correctly matched?
A.            Cyprus - to maintain peace between the two dominant ethnic groups in the country
B.            Mozambique - To supervise a referendum
C.            El Salvador - to deliver humanitarian aid
D.            Lebanon - For supervising a 1992 accord
Answer: Option A
41.Which of the following is Human Rights Organisation?
A.            The French community
B.            The Organisation of African Unity
C.            The Arab League
D.            Amnesty International
Answer: Option D
42.The headquarters of International Atomic Energy Agency is located in
A.            Vienna  B.            London
C.            Geneva                D.            Washington
Answer: Option A
43.The head quarters of the International Red Cross is situated in
A.            Vienna  B.            Paris
C.            Hague   D.            Geneva
Answer: Option D
44.Which was the first country to withdraw from CENTO?
A.            Iraq        B.            Afghanistan
C.            Turkey  D.            U.K.
Answer: Option A
45.First Indian to make a speech in Hindi before the UN General Assembly is
A.            Moraji Desai
B.            A.B. Vajpayee
C.            Lal Bahadur Shastri
D.            Lal Krishna Advani
Answer: Option B
46.When was SAARC founded?
A.            1982       B.            1984
C.            1985       D.            1983
Answer: Option C
47.Which of the following is not a member of G-15?
A.            Pakistan               B.            Malaysia
C.            Indonesia            D.            India
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option A
48.Amnesty International has its headquarters at
A.            Berlin
B.            New York
C.            Washington
D.            London
 Answer: Option D
49.Headquarters of the World Health Organisation is located at
A.            Geneva
B.            Washington DC
C.            New York
D.            Rome
Answer: Option A
50.The working language(s) of the UNESCO is/are
A.            French only
B.            English only
C.            English and French
D.            English, French and Russian
Answer: Option D






Thursday, 12 April 2012

Wednesday, 11 April 2012


  General Knowledge Test

Try Yourself:


 1.Hitler party which came into power in 1933 is known as


       Labour Party
     Nazi Party

Ku-Klux-Klan
   



Democratic Party

2.For which of the following disciplines is Nobel Prize awarded?

Physics and Chemistry

Physiology or Medicine

Literature, Peace and Economics

All of the above

3.Garampani sanctuary is located at

Junagarh, Gujarat

Diphu, Assam

Kohima, Nagaland

Gangtok, Sikkim









4.Entomology is the science that studies

Behavior of human beings

Insects

The origin and history of technical and scientific terms

The formation of rocks


5.Grand Central Terminal, Park Avenue, New York is the world's

largest railway station

highest railway station

longest railway station

None of the above











Cox's Bazar District is a district in the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh. It is named after Cox's Bazar, which is one of the world's longest natural sea beaches (120 km) including mud flats. It is located 150km south of Chittagong.www.tourtobangladesh.com/Coxs-Bazar.php Cox’s Bazar is also known by the name “Panowa”, the literal translation of which means “yellow flower”. Its other old name was “Palongkee”. The modern Cox's Bazar derives its name from Captain Cox, who died 1798, an army officer serving in British India. It is also one of the fishing ports of Bangladesh.

                                         Top 10 beaches of the world


1. Las Islas Cíes, Galicia, Spain

2. Tayrona national park, Colombia

3. Porto da Barra, Salvador, Brazil
4. Anywhere on Palawan, the Philippines

5. Nungwi, Zanzibar, Tanzania

6. Arambol, Goa, India

7. Whitehaven, Whitsunday Islands, Queensland, Australia

 8. Shell Beach, Isle of Purbeck, Dorset

9. Sinclair´s Bay, Caithness

 10. Aroa, Aitutaki, One Foot Island, Cook Islands



History of the University
Jagannath University is situated in the southern part of the city of Dhaka near the Buriganga. This prestigious  educational establishment has a history of about 150 years which started in 1858 when Dhaka Brahma School was founded in 1858 by Dinanath Sen, Prabhaticharan Roy, Anathbandhu Mallik and Brajasundar Kaitra. The name Jagannath school was given by Kishorilal Chowdhury, the Zamindar of Baliadi who took over the school in 1872 and renamed it after his father's name. In 1884, it was raised to a second grade college. Law was one of the first courses introduced in the college. A common management committee administered the school and college until 1887, when the school section was separated to form an independent school named Kishore Jubilee School. It is now known as K L Jubilee School. The administration of the college was transferred to a board of trustees in 1907. In the following year, it became a first grade college.

The college started with only 48 students and in five years, the roll raised to 396. In 1910, Raja Manmath Roy Chowdhury, the zamindar of Santosh, tangail affiliated the Pramath-Manmath College of Tangail with Jagannath College.It was known as the best equipped private college in Dhaka as early as 1910. With the establishment of Dhaka University in 1921 the college had to stop admission in Degree courses and was renamed Jagannath Intermediate College. This status was changed after 28 years in 1949, when it reopened Degree classes. The college was taken over by the government in 1968.

Jagannath College opened honours and masters programmes in 1975. That year the government once again took over the college and upgraded it into a postgraduate college. In 1982, the college closed its programmes of intermediate level.The college introduced evening shifts in 1992.The college was transformed into the Jagannath University in 2005. At present the University has 22 departments under 4 faculties. The faculties are Science, Arts, Business Studies and Social Science. Now 271 teachers are engaged in providing quality education of around 27000 students. on diverse areas. 

The teachers and students of the college took active part in the Language Movement of the early 1950s, the mass movements of the 1960s and the War of Liberation of the country in 1971. The college produced tens of thousands graduates. Many of them have become famous at home and abroad. Noted among the alumni of the college are sufi motahar hosen (poet), Abdul Hamid (sports organiser and sports journalist), Bhabatosh Dutta (economist), Premendra Mitra (writer and poet), AR Yusuf (Bar-at-Law, State Minister of Bangladesh in early 1980s), A KMA Rouf (artist), Anisuzzaman (educationist, researcher), and Brozen Das (swimmer, the first Indian to swim across English Channel).

The Management of University is striving to make this establishment as a center of excellence for creating successful and  productive citizens of Bangladesh.www.jnu.ac.bd
 

             Proposal on Arsenic problem in Satkhira,Bangladesh  
BACKGROUND:
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals" (1920, C.E.A. Winslow). It is concerned with threats to health based on population health analysis. The population in question can be as small as a handful of people or as large as all the inhabitants of several continents (for instance, in the case of a pandemic). The dimensions of health can encompass "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity",                                                                                                                                                   
Public health plays an important role in disease prevention efforts in both the developing world and in developed countries, through local health systems and non-governmental organizations. The World Health Organization (WHO) is the international agency that coordinates and acts on global public health issues. Most countries have their own government public health agencies, sometimes known as ministries of health, to respond to domestic health issues. For example in the United States, the front line of public health initiatives are state and local health departments. The United States Public Health Service (PHS), led by the Surgeon General of the United States, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, headquartered in Atlanta, are involved with several international health activities, in addition to their national duties. In Canada, the Public Health Agency of Canada is the national agency responsible for public health, emergency preparedness and response, and infectious and chronic disease control and prevention. The Public health system in Bangladesh is managed by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare of the government of Bangladesh with state owned health care facilities.
The arsenic contamination in ground water has been a major concern in Bangladesh in the recent years. At least thirty million people in 61 districts are vulnerable to drinking arsenic contaminated water and over 38,000 of them have already fallen sick. Arsenic contamination has clearly become a major threat to the public health of the nation.                                                                                                                       Countless editorials and reports have been published on arsenic contamination but we all know that as far as concrete results are concerned, our achievements have not been overwhelming. In fact, a recent report bares all the facts before us and we know that in the last three years 36 persons have died, 38,500 are affected and about 7 crore people face a direct threat. So far, around 50 lakh tube-wells have been checked and of them, 14 lakh, a staggering number, have been identified to contain arsenic
Though in other countries 0.01 milligram of arsenic in one litre of water is considered acceptable, in Bangladesh, that limit is 0.05 milligram. Unfortunately, in many upazilas the level is way too high and despite the presence of the seven-year arsenic mitigation programme that started in 1998 with a budget of Tk178 crore, progress in this project has been frightfully torpid. Funded predominantly by the World Bank, this programme has had some success in creating public awareness in 190 upazilas along with training 2330 doctors and 12 thousand health workers but till today millions are still faced with the prospect of arsenic contamination due to lack of proper knowledge and viable options
Arsenic contamination of groundwater has taken a serious turn at seven upazilas in Satkhira posing a serious threat to public health. District Health office sources said as many as 1,482 people of the district have so far been affected with arsenicosis, arsenic related diseases.
Of them, 683 are under Kalaroa, 450 under Tala, 256 under Assasuni, 65 under Debhata, and 28 under Kaliganj upazilas. The Local Government Engineering Department with the help of Department of Public Health Engineering has taken up a programme under Bangladesh Arsenic Mitigation Water Supply Project to detect arsenic contamination in the tube well water.
Arsenic contamination was detected in 95.2 per cent tube wells under Kalaroa, 76.8 per cent tube wells under Debhata, 70 per cent tube wells under Assasuni, and 68 per cent tube wells under Tala upazilas. According to the DPHE, water of 16,195 tube wells out of 17,859 under Kalaroa, 16,277 out of 24,605 under Tala, 7,949 out of 12,299 under Assasuni, 6,666 out of 9,270 under Debhata, 4,202 out of 12,723 under Kaliganj, 174 out of 2,240 under Shyamnagar and 16,611 out of 33,049 under sadar upazilas was found to have contained arsenic at varying proportions.                                                                                   The DPHE has red marked the highly contaminated tube-wells and advised the people not to use the water of the tube-wells. About 58 per cent of the tube wells are not safe for health, according to health officials.                                                                                                                                                                        Most of the people alleged that they did not have any alternative source of safe water. They urged the government to take immediate steps for arranging alternative source of water.                                     When contacted, the executive engineer of the DPHE,M Abdul Hamid Mia said they have installed 2,437 deep tube-wells and 1,188 Pond Sand Filter in different areas of the district to supply potable water to the people. About 5,43,750 people were now getting benefits of these deep tube wells and PSF. They also advised the people to use boiled rain or surface water, he added (BANGLADESH SANGBAD SANGSTHA, Satkhira, June 8, 2005).
Target Group:
Households of the hot-spot unions of the Assasuni Upazila
Study objectives:
The role of public health is to promote and protect the health and safety. This study is accomplished by:
.* identifying health risks in the community of Assasuni;
* maintaining a safe and healthful environment;
* detecting, investigating, and preventing the spread of arsenicosis;
* promoting healthy lifestyles;
* providing primary care for individuals with limited access to such care from the private sector; and ensuring that health care practitioners meet the requirements for providing adequate care;                               * informing the public on health issues.
*Building local capacity for arsenic mitigation.
Liturature Review:
1.Discovery of Arsenic in drinking water in Bangladesh.
 Allan H. Smith says that,”The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is the largest poisoning of a population in history, with millions of people exposed”. This paper describes the history of the discovery of arsenic in drinking-water in Bangladesh and recommends intervention strategies. Tube-wells were installed to provide ‘‘pure water’’ to prevent morbidity and mortality from gastrointestinal disease. The water from the millions of tube-wells that were installed was not tested for arsenic contamination. Studies in other countries where the population has had long-term exposure to arsenic in groundwater indicate that 1 in 10 people who drink water containing 500 mg of arsenic per litre may ultimately die from cancers caused by arsenic, including lung, bladder and skin cancers. The rapid allocation of funding and prompt expansion of current interventions to address this contamination should be facilitated. The fundamental intervention is the identification and provision of arsenic-free drinking water. Arsenic is rapidly excreted in urine, and for early or mild cases, no specific treatment is required. Community education and participation are essential to ensure that interventions are successful; these should be coupled with follow-up monitoring to confirm that exposure has ended. Taken together with the discovery of arsenic in groundwater in other countries, the experience in Bangladesh shows that groundwater sources throughout the world that are used for drinking-water should be tested for arsenic.
Reference: Allan H. Smith,Elena O. Lingas, & Mahfuzar Rahman
 Professor of Epidemiology, 140 Warren Hall, School of Public Health,
University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7360, USA
(email: ahsmith@uclink4.berkeley.edu)
2.Groundwater arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh: An interview  
There were waterborne diseases such as diarrhoea in Bangladesh due to the drinking of untreated water several decades ago.  During the 1970s, UNICEF and some international donor agencies advised the Government of Bangladesh to tap groundwater for drinking purposes.  Drinking this groundwater actually reduces the level of diarrhoea, but at the same time it is increasing the risk of arsenic poisoning, leading to arsenicosis, hyperpigmentation, gangrene, and finally cancer.  The latency time of cancer symptoms is 15-30 years depending on arsenic content in the water and the period of ingestion.  Local poor people are not actually aware of arsenic poisoning.  They still think that tube well water is good quality and that it is much better than the surface water, whether it is contaminated with arsenic or not.
Today, more than 30 million people in Bangladesh are affected by contaminated water. In West Bengal, the area across the border with India, “a minimum of six million people, including two million children belonging to nine out of the total 18 districts were drinking arsenic contaminated water, which contained arsenic of more than 50 ug/L,” notes professor M. Habibur Rahman of Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (Bernama 2003). The victims show a number of symptoms, ranging from blackened fingernails, hair follicles, and white or black patches on the skin. Arsenic also inflicts serious damage to the lungs, liver, and kidneys while arsenic-related cancer causes nearly 3,000 deaths a year. Since the symptoms may appear as long as 10 years after someone starts drinking contaminated water, and because the arsenic does not affect everyone the same way, many cases of poisoning have gone unreported. Proper reporting is also hindered by the fact that the arsenic does not come only through the water, but through the food chain as well. Even those who manage to avoid contaminated water can be exposed to poisoning through ingesting rice, peas, wheat, and meat. However, the extent of arsenic contamination of food is still unknown. (Yoshida, Yamauchi, 2004; Meharg, Jardine 2003)
Reference:  Dr Manzurul Hassan,
Geographer and faculty member of Jahangirnagar University in Bangladesh.
3.SARID, September 08, 2004
The contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh is often called the biggest mass poisoning in history. It began in the 1970's, when the United Nations Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) initiated the construction of millions of tube-wells with the aim of providing Bangladeshis with clean and safe drinking water - an alternative to the surface water contaminated with diarrhea-causing bacteria that killed a quarter of a million Bangladeshi children each year. But as the tube-wells eliminated one problem, they, in turn, brought about a new tragedy of unimagined proportions. Arsenic-contaminated water from the wells started poisoning millions, bewildering the scientists trying to understand how the poisoning works as well as how to control it. Meanwhile, the 8 to 12 million contaminated wells across the country continue to be the main source of water for most Bangladeshis, presenting a growing danger to their lives. The scope of the calamity has drawn worldwide concern and triggered a broad effort to remedy the problem.
Reference: Jasmin Mehovic and Janaki Blum (mehovic@sarid.net, blum@sarid.net)
4.Arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh by
"Bangladesh is grappling with the largest mass poisoning of a population in his-tory because groundwater used for drinking has been contaminated with natu-rally occurring inorganic arsenic", the World Health Organisation (WHO) re-ported in September 2000.
Allan H. Smith, professor of epidemiology at the University of California at Berkeley has said that between 33 and 77 millions of Bangladesh's 125 million population are at risk. In 2002, after a long debate, United States congress adopted the WHO recommendation of 10 micrograms per liter as the maximum contaminant level for safe drinking water. In many areas in Bangladesh concen-trations are above 3000 micrograms per liter and even up to 10 000. Some ex-perts warn that it is a matter of time before contaminated water seeps through the entire country.
Reference: Aapo Saask ,World Health Organisation (WHO)
5.Joseph Graziano: tackling arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh
Graziano's team worked with 60 local public-health researchers in Bangladesh to study the long-term effects of arsenic poisoning. Graziano recalls that when his team from Columbia was putting together their project, the ethics review committee told them: “you can't just make this a natural history of arsenic poisoning”. They had a moral obligation to help mitigate the poisoning. So far, the team have tested 6000 wells, which are used by more than 70 000 people. 60% of those wells proved to have arsenic concentrations above 50 μg/L. After the wells were tested, the populations using the affected wells were given health education programmes to encourage them to switch to safe sources of water. “It is an exhausting project, it requires going to Bangladesh frequently, it's not a light workload. And somehow he manages to be available, make the right decision when necessary”, says van Geen. “I worry a little bit about what is going to happen when he retires.”
 Reference: The Independent, Dhaka, July 2, 2003
6. Study: Millions in Bangladesh exposed to arsenic in drinking water
It could be the worst mass poisoning in history. And the terrible irony is that it may all be due to an idealistic push to clean up drinking water for some of the world's poorest people.
A new study published in British medical journal The Lancet says that up to 77 million people in Bangladesh are being exposed to toxic levels of arsenic, potentially taking years or decades off their lives.
An international team of researchers from Chicago, New York and Bangladesh followed 12,000 people over the past decade, monitoring their arsenic intake and mortality rates from contaminated wells. Reference: Brian Walker, CNN
7.How the West poisoned Bangladesh
A UN project aimed to help millions - but it brought them water contaminated with arsenic.
Bangladesh's arsenic crisis dates back to the 1970s when, in an effort to improve the quality of drinking water and counter diarrhoea, which was one of the country's biggest killers of children, there was large-scale international investment in building tube wells. It was believed the wells would provide safe supplies for families, otherwise dependent on dirty surface water which was killing up to 250,000 children a year.
The arsenic contaminating so much of Bangladesh's water occurs naturally in the water courses of the rivers that sustain hundreds of millions of people. Many underground sources around the world suffer from arsenic contamination and there have been health issues in countries ranging from Argentina to Taiwan and India. There is also considerable arsenic contamination in parts of the US.
8. Arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh: spatial mitigation planning with GIS and public participation.
A PPGIS (Public Participatory Geographical Information System) has recently been developed in combination with PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal) and GIS (Geographical Information Systems) methodologies to utilise GIS in the context of the needs of communities that are involved with, and affected by development programmes. The impact of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh is 'tragic and painful' on patients' health and their social life what was described as the 'worse mass poisoning in human history' in a WHO report. Deep tubewell is said to be a source of arsenic-free safe drinking water and people are mainly interested in deep tubewell water rather than rainwater harvesting, dug-wells, and pond-sand-filters (PSF) approved by the BAMWSP (Bangladesh Arsenic Mitigation Water Supply Project). This paper mainly explores the application and suitability of GIS with local community participation in deep tubewell planning for arsenic mitigation. The relevant data for this study were collected from the field survey. The PRA methods were used to obtain social and resource information; while a GIS was used to organise, analyse, and display the information. Participants from three different focus-groups were asked to determine their 'own priorities' for spatial planning of deep tubewell for arsenic-free water. The study results valuable community perspectives on deep tubewell planning and reveals the suitability of PPGIS in spatial planning for arsenic mitigation with local community mapping overlay. The process of dialogue and preparation of mental mapping within each focus-group participants lead to enhance information about community needs of deep tubewell in the study . Reference: M Manzurul Hassan
9. Arsenic contamination of ground water in Bangladesh .
 Arsenic contamination of ground water in Bangladesh, now recognized as it’s worst disaster, may surpass Bhopal and Chernobyl as the highest environmental cancer risk ever found. Over 35 million people rely on arsenic-contaminated drinking water. Many don’t even know they are at risk.
According to the Bangladesh-based Disaster Forum: “The Dhaka Declaration [on Bangladesh Environment, 2000] says a major portion of Bangladesh's groundwater is contaminated with high concentrations of arsenic. A large number of people, including children and women, continue to suffer from chronic arsenic poisoning, and more are expected to suffer in the future. The arsenic problem remains a major threat to public health and the social structure of Bangladesh. Supply of arsenic-free, safe water is the immediate need.”
Reference: Disaster Forum, Fact Sheet on Arsenic #XII, June 2000.
10.Arsenic poisoning of Bangladesh groundwater
In Bangladesh and West Bengal, alluvial Ganges aquifers used for public water supply are polluted with naturally occurring arsenic, which adversely affects the health of millions of people. Here we show that the arsenic derives from the reductive dissolution of arsenic-rich iron oxyhydroxides, which in turn are derived from weathering of base-metal sulphides. This finding means it should now be possible, by sedimentological study of the Ganges alluvial sediments, to guide the placement of new water wells so they will be free of arsenic.
 Reference: Ross Nickson1, John McArthur1, William Burgess1, Kazi Matin Ahmed2, Peter Ravenscroft3 & Mizanur Rahman
11. Toxic torts : arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh and the legal geographies of responsibility.
Tubewells have been so popular in rural Bangladesh that about 12 million have been installed, yielding water that is convenient, free and low in bacteria. But every fourth well is polluted with arsenic, with the result that millions of people are exposed to a severe environmental hazard. We explore this crisis from the viewpoint of legal geographies. The case of Sutradhar v NERC is taken as an exemplar of a debate about 'proximity' between scientific consultants and aid donors on the one hand, and their clients in poor countries on the other. In short, the article is about the desirability of bringing responsibility into line with supposed generosity.
Reference: Atkins, P. J. and Hassan, M. M. and Dunn, C. E. (2006) 'Toxic torts : arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh and the legal geographies of responsibility.', Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers., 31 (3). pp. 272-285.
12. Arsenic poisoning in groundwater: Health risk and geochemical sources in BangladeshOf the 2508 water samples analyzed in 10 districts of Bangladesh, 51%, on an average, contained arsenic levels of 0.05 to 2.50 mg/l. 95% of nail, 96% of hair, and 94% of urine samples contained arsenic above the normal level. Approximately 3.58 million people out of a total of 17.92 million who are drinking water containing arsenic levels >0.20 mg/l are potentially exposed to high risk of health hazard. Eight thousand and five hundred arsenic patients are identified; they are suffering from various skin lesions, gangrene in leg, skin, lung, bladder, liver, and renal cancer. A big portion of the total population is highly vulnerable to various internal cancers. Lowest arsenic concentration in drinking water producing dermatological disease is found to be 0.103 mg/l. However, the exposure time to develop arsenicosis varies from case to case reflecting its dependence on arsenic level in drinking water and food, nutritional status, genetic variant of human being, and compounding factors. This study has determined the high intensity of fluorescent humic substances in drinking water containing elevated concentrations of arsenic and very low concentrations of heavy metals. The synergistic/antagonistic effect of fluorescent compounds present in drinking water may aggravate the toxicity of arsenic. Geochemical study suggests that arsenic may be released from both reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn (oxy)hydroxide and microbial oxidation of organic matter.                          Reference: H.M. Anawara,
 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(01)00116-7,
13. Researcher’s work may prevent arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh
It is, without a doubt, the largest mass poisoning in history. More than 150,000 people living in the developing nation of Bangladesh are expected to die from skin, bladder, liver, and lung cancers because of exposure to naturally occurring arsenic. Now, a testing method developed by Seth H. Frisbie, faculty member in Norwich University’s chemistry department, is offering hope for hundreds of thousands of people by making it easier to identify safer sources of groundwater in the southwest Asian country of 137 million.                                                                                                                                                               “The youngest recorded cancer death in Bangladesh is that of a seven year old,” Frisbie said. “I’ve been in villages where no one is over 30.”
 Reference: Gary E. Frank, correspondent © March 16, 2008 Norwich University Office of Communications
14. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning and Respiratory Effects in Bangladesh
A large population in Bangladesh have been exposed to naturally occurring inorganic arsenic through their drinking water. A prevalence comparison study of respiratory disorders among subjects with and without arsenic exposure through drinking water was conducted in Bangladesh. Characteristic skin lesions, keratoses and pigmentation alteration, and the water arsenic level confirmed the arsenic exposure. Three villages were selected from health awareness campaign programs. Participants in these courtyard meetings who had suspected skin lesions. i.e., keratosis, hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation, were examined by a well-trained medical officer to confirm the diagnosis. Unexposed subjects were randomly selected from another village, where tubewells were not contaminated with arsenic. We interviewed and examined 218 individuals irrespective of age and sex from these villages. The arsenic levelin their drinking water was measured and the mean arsenic level was 614 μg/l (ranging from 136 μg/l to 1,000 μg/l). Information regarding respiratory system
signs and symptoms was also collected. There were few smokers, and analyses were therefore confined to nonsmokers. The overall crude prevalence (or risk) among the exposed subjects for chronic cough, and chronic bronchitis, was three times the prevalence in the control population. Age was a slightly negative confounding factor. The crude prevalence ratios were noticeably increased for female participants compared to male participants. A possible explanation for this noticeably increased occurrence of respiratory signs and symptoms in women is related to the presence of weakness.
Reference: Abul Hasnat MILTON1, Ziul HASAN1, Atiqur RAHMAN2 and Mahfuzar RAHMAN3, 4
1.Chief, Arsenic Cell, NGO Forum for Drinking Water Supply & Sanitation,
2.Bangobandhu Sheikh Mojib Medical University,
3.Public Health Sciences Division, ICDDR’B: Centre for Health and Population Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh and
4.Division of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden.
Importance of the study: From this study we will come to know about the exact situation of arsenic pollution in Assasuni Thana.





Methodology:
Both quantitative and qualitative enquiry are useful for social hazard and risk research on arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh, but qualitative methodologies seem to me to be the most reliable and effective in this regard.  In understanding the meaning of pain in the lives of arsenic-affected patients and their social problems, qualitative enquiry with the “interpretive hermeneutical phenomenology” of Max van Manen, and the “grounded theory approach” of Anselm L Strauss and Barney G Glaser are suitable.  One can also use quantitative methods for assessing the health risk of arsenic poisoning, but they are not always suitable since it is not possible to quantify the “pain” of the arsenic-affected people.  Moreover, in making the relationships between social norms of the arsenic-affected people and their social problems with arsenic poisoning, the qualitative methodologies are most helpful.  Participant observation with ethnography could be used to detect the arsenic impact on social life of the affected people.  Arsenic-affected people are generally found not to disclose their disease to anybody in rural Bangladesh and they manage their social and family lives in their own way.
Sources of data:
Primary data: From different places of assasuni upazila.
Secondary data: From different study,DPHE,INTERNET.
Schedule of activities:
No
Task
M1
M2
M3
M4
M5
M6
1
Survey Preparation






2
Literature Review






3
Field Test
Question finalize






4
Data analysis






5
Draft Report






6
Final Report Presentation










Budget:
  No
                Issues
Demand(Tk)
Total(Tk)
1
Researchers salary
3×10000
30000
2
Assistant salary
5×4000
20000
3
Field test
5000
5000
4
Photocopy
2000
2000
5
Online cost
3000
3000
6
Travelling
8000
8000
7
Stationary
5000
5000
8
Draft report
2000
2000
9
Final report
3000
3000
10
Others
5000
5000
                                                        Total  =  83000
Profile of the Research team:
Name of Researchers
Educational Background
Field of Work
Dr. Manzurul Hassan
Geographer and faculty member of Jahangirnagar University in Bangladesh
Geographer
Allan H. Smith
University of California, Berkeley.
Professor of Epidemiology
Md. Ferdaush Hossain
Jagannath university,Dhaka
Student
Ruhul
             “
 Assistant
Arif
             “
         “
Rafique
             “
         “
Motiur
             “
         “


Reference:
1.DPHE, Assasuni upazila
2.Ministry of public health & family planning,Bangladesh.
3.Report of WHO.
4.Abstract of different proposal.
5.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(01)00116-7,
6.Internet.

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Jagannath University is a renowned educational institution in Bangladesh.It has a long tradition & history.Now it is called the DIG...